Knowledge and Skills to Get 'Literature Review' chapter

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Excerpt from 'Literature Review' chapter :

It involves the replacement of rule of thumb gradually with science for the mechanical arts.

Mesopotamia

The existence of the two rivers i.e. Euphrates and Tigris gave this name Mesopotamia which means the land between rivers to the region. Agricultural revolution was begun by the people of this region in about ten thousand years ago. They domesticated animals and plants instead of hunting and gathering as was common in the time. Their crops were tended in houses built of mud-brick or reeds and clustered in villages (Hyman 138). Their grains were stored in the granaries that they built and their trade and account were recorded in a token system that they developed. There was a sudden change and growth in the civilization of the southern Mesopotamia between 3000 and 3500, with the main focus being in the cities of Ur and Uruk. Rendering of the old ways of agriculture less productive due to climatic change might be the reason for this change. The clustering of the people was characterized by fewer but spread in larger locations and the potter's wheel, the plough and the bronze introduction can be perceived as the reaction to the requirements of a more economically intensive life and also the reason of incremented complexity in their life. There was gradual Sumerian civilization development in the principals section of the third millennium which is currently referred to as Early Dynastic period. Early Sumerian Literature followed the Early Dynastic period. The environment habited by the Sumerians was unpredictable, complex and hostile. The creation of the world's first empire by Sargon which stretched the breadth and length of the Fertile Crescent ended Early Dynastic period (Badiru 34).

Egypt

Pharaoh emerged as the ruler a country which resorted from a united chain of independent city states which were lining the River Nile five thousand years ago. A highly distinctive culture developed from this union almost instantly. And in the Mediterranean world, Egypt maintained the foremost position for about 30 centuries. The arrival of Alexander the Great portended the decline of the Egyptian way of life. Successive layers of Greek, Arabic and Roman tradition quickly buried this unique culture destroying the previous knowledge of glorious Egypt. The ability to adapt to the River Nile Valley conditions it attributed as one of the reasons for success of ancient Egyptian civilization. Cultural and social developments were made possible by the excess crops that were produced as a result of controlled irrigation of the fertile valley and the predictable valley. This excess produce was also able to allow for the governing body to fund for projects like exploration of minerals at the valley, conduct trade with neighboring regions, enhancement of the military which would conquer the foreign enemies and organize the agricultural and construction projects collectively. The Egyptians obeyed the implementation of these activities under the rulings of religious leaders and scribes who then reported to pharaoh and this was done in the context of religious beliefs that formed an elaborate system. More than 70,000 workers for instance had been used to build the pyramids and as history indicates there was no evidence of being coerced by pharaoh to achieve this but were motivated by the beliefs in immortality.

Greece

The advantages of uniform work methods were understood and practiced by the ancient Greeks as indicated by historical records. In case of surprise attacks, the manner of how the equipments and weapons were laid was instructed to the soldiers. Work songs were integrated in their activities so as less fatiguing tempo was achieved and productivity improved. Plato also recognized the division of labor and he wrote that the individual will excel in work which he is confined to limited tasks. A characteristics associated with Greeks is that exhibited by Socrates of unceasingly questioning of authorities, himself, accepted practices and traditions. This is the mind capacity to apprehend the world and an associated conviction to concur with the understanding. There was a habit of criticizing the government even when things were relatively fine and people are living well because of their lack of acceptance of the status quo. Another characteristic of the Greek thought is the moral accountability of people to their actions and this made the Socrates insistence on punishment acceptance meted by the Athenians. Till the end, Socrates is a supporter of democracy and the majority will. This is despite his serious worries about his fellow citizen sincere self-questioning ("History of Greece").

Roman

Most of the Romans beliefs were adopted from the culture of the Greeks and in particular disregard for manual labor. They were however industrious and portrayed proficiency in administration, organization, building and warfare. The roman culture was disseminated through the established empire to the most parts of the civilized world in the duration starting c500 BC to c117 AD. The western culture was also greatly influenced by the Roman Empire as it spanned most of Europe, Egypt, the Middle East and North Africa. About 2500 years ago, sophisticated contracts were being used in execution of works of major buildings. Ten contractors were managed by the Architect Callicrates in Athens for construction of the Long Walls. Four contractors were then involved in building of Colosseum a few centuries later. Detail work specifications, payment methods, guarantees requirements and time factors were contained in these contracts. The collapse of the Roman Empire led to the disappearing of most of these sophistications (Weaver).

Byzantine

The transmission of classical knowledge can be attributed to the byzantine science which played an important role in the transfer to Renaissance Italy, Islamic world. Medieval Arabic science can transfer can also be attributed to byzantine science which aided transmission to Renaissance Italy. This has helped in the ancient knowledge preservation of which technological, architecture and art achievements have been built upon. Decline in literacy and learning had started by the time the six-century was ending in the eastern empire and the level of recorded content for three centuries is small regarding classical studies. A period of peace came after Greek literature dark moments when surviving classical books were sought by Photius. Most surviving manuscripts were copied at this period and preserved the work of the ancient authors. Many Greek speaking people moved to Italy with the reducing Byzantine Empire fortunes way earlier before the major exodus that came after the Byzantium fall in 1453. The Italians were eager to accumulate Greek manuscripts because the new knowledge of Greek spurred them and this consisted of the classical literature. The arrival of printing press characterized the latter fifteenth century part which was also a novel step in the classics preservation which produced more accurate and admirable typographical beauty.

Islamic Golden Age

The technological traditions remained unchanged for the larger part even though immense religious, political and cultural changes were brought about by the advent of Islam. Earlier civilizations techniques were taken in mechanical engineering by the Muslims to gratify the new society's needs. A more extensive life than any witnessed since the Roman era was the center of these needs. Shaduf is the most ancient machine utilized for water rising and it's appears in Akkadin reliefs in as early as 2500B.C. illustrations and still used today in some Middle East parts. In the design and construction methods used in the Islamic Golden Age consist of various concepts such as minimization of warping through timber lamination, wheel static balancing, establishing designs using paper models, wooden templates use, seats grinding, orifices calibration and closed molds boxes casting of metals using sand. Many great factories which existed during the Islamic rule closed down due to the expulsion and massacre of Andalusia Muslims by the Christians. This also led to the progress standstill in crafts, science, agriculture and other civilization products. Lack of skilled masons led to fall of most towns into ruins (Routledge 65).

Romanesque

This period is also dubbed the Church Triumphant period and dates approximately 1000 to 1137 A.D. The Western Europe was unified by the Catholic Church in an unparallel manner since Roman times. This is also the period of Monasticism when most of the monastic settlements were focused of the Romanesque populace scholarly and religious life. The Romanesque label also has several architectural reasons; ancient Roman structural devices were emulated by the architects of this era, making use of barrel, vaults, arches and groin vaults in their enormous solid stone edifices. There existed several Romanesque architectural variants: the Cluniac-Burgundian variant which was the first and attributed most fortress characteristics as observed in St. Sernin nave. The second Romanesque architecture variant originated from the French Normandy area and it's called Norman.

Crucades

Chivalry was a demeanor code followed by medieval knights a feature common in Western Europe High and later middle Ages. Chivalry thrived well in the 12th and 13th centuries even though its roots are dated back to 9th and 10th centuries and at the Middle Ages ending, it deteriorated. Still in the 6th…

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