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Men, especially, are staying with the same employers for fewer years. This means that workers in this century need to be adaptable and flexible. Education and training is no longer just to acquire the skills and knowledge necessary get a foundation in one's career. It is required for continuous improvement over one's life to keep up with updating work needs.
Over the last century, a number of different theories have been developed to explain how children learn. Many of these theoretical approaches have been proven valid since they were first hypothesized. However, the way that they are applied has to be altered to meet the changing needs of the students and society. Jean Piaget (1936), a Swiss biologist and psychologist, is known for a model of birth through adult development and learning that is based on the concept that the growing person builds cognitive structures or mental schema or networks for comprehending and relating to
experiences within the environment. According to Piaget, a child's cognitive structure becomes more sophisticated as it develops, growing from a few innate responses such as crying to highly complicated mental activities.
Piaget (1936) describes a number of different principles for expanding cognitive ability. As children develop, they experience their environment utilizing the mental schema that they have thus far established. If they are experiencing something repeatedly, the results are assimilated into their cognitive structure, so that they can maintain mental balance. If instead they are having a new experience, the children lose mental symmetry and must adjust their cognitive structure to cope with the changing situations. In this way, the youths build increasingly complex and adaptive cognitive structures. A number of lessons can be learned for today's education from Piaget's model. Teachers must develop a curriculum that is developmentally appropriate and will enhance the students' level of cognitive growth. It is also important that educators stress the essential role that both established and new experiences play in the students' continued learning.
Much of Piaget's conceptual theories are based on thoughts by John Dewey (1910) and the concept of constructivism; people understand only what they have…[continue]
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